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Division of Research and Graduate Studies

Central California Research Symposium

Thursday, April 17, 2003
University Business Center
California State University, Fresno

Fresno State’s New Campus Observatory
Ringwald, F. A. (1,2), White, S. J. (1), Cowley, A. I. (1), Morgan, G. E. (2), Prigge, J. W. (1), Endler, S. S. (1), Guenther, H. D. (3), Bellis, B. K. (1,2), Cardoza, E. D. (1), Reyna, G. (1), Rorabaugh, J. D. (1), Severson, Jr., R. W. (1) (1) California State University, Fresno; (2) Central Valley Astronomers; (3) Biola University

Fresno State’s new Campus Observatory became operational behind the Downing Planetarium in 2002 May. The 16-inch Meade LX-200 telescope’s current instruments are all used at Schmidt-Cassegrain focus at f/10, and include a digital SBIG ST-8 CCD camera, an AO-7 Adaptive Optics System for correcting the effect of turbulence in Earth’s atmosphere, and a Self-Guiding Spectrograph for analyzing starlight with its own dedicated SBIG ST-7XE CCD camera. We also have a Meade f/3.3 focal reducer, for wide-field imaging with the ST-8. The telescope’s image resolution, or smallest detail it can discern, is between 1-2 arcseconds for 80% of the time, excellent for a facility not on a mountaintop. This is probably because of the observatory’s small size, unpainted aluminum skin, and being surrounded by grass, all good for thermal properties. Despite being on campus (and convenient for students to use), it routinely images 19th magnitude stars (100,000 times fainter than the unaided eye can see) in short (1-2-minute) exposures, despite Fresno’s bright urban sky. Current science programs include (1) Target-of-opportunity observations of the nuclear-powered eruptions of classical novae, by Greg Morgan; (2) Searches for stellar variability, particularly from hot, high-gravity stars that heat cool companions that have undergone common envelope evolution, by Scott Endler; and (3) Searches for transits of extrasolar planets, by Jesse Rorabaugh and John Prigge. Proposed programs include (a) Searches for black holes; (b) Campaigns with the Center for Backyard Astrophysics, a global network of small telescopes, dedicated to observing cataclysmic variable stars and their outbursts; and (c) A campaign in support of NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft, which is scheduled to make a crater in Comet Tempel 1 on July 4, 2005. On most projects we collaborate with the Central Valley Astronomers, Fresno’s amateur club, who are a huge help. We also thanks the College of Science and Mathematics at California State University, Fresno, for their support.

Synthesis of Rotenone Derivatives: Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Complex I Probes
LINDA XIONG (University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90025) HENRY VANBROCKLIN (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkley, CA 94720), NANDANAN ERATHODIYIL (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkley, CA 94720) University of California, Los Angeles

The overall objective of the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Functional Imaging at LBNL is to develop efficient methods to help diagnose diseases and monitor treatment. The goal of this project was to produce new rotenone derivatives, compounds known to be potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which will be labeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 for PET (Positron EmissionTomography) imaging. These rotenone derivatives are potential imaging agents for cardiac diseases. Commercially available rotenone was converted into different analogs using various synthetic chemistry procedures. After each successful reaction step the product was purified and fully characterized. These compounds will be further converted to imaging agents in the radiochemistry laboratory or will be used to confirm the identity of the new radiolabeled compounds. Continuing the research towards finding new radiolabeled tracers will lead to better and more efficient means of identifying disease in the human body.

Natural Law in the Holy Sonnets of John Donne
Edward J. Garcia

Natural Law in the Holy Sonnets Of John Donne Edward Garcia Department of English John Donne’s use of the natural law is influenced by many factors. He was born during the time of the English reformation to a family rooted in the Catholic religion. The theological debates between Protestants and Catholics surrounding John Donne as a young man stayed with him his entire life. Although John Donne was ordained in the Anglican Church, Donne still had a strong affinity to the Catholic Church and the years leading up to his ordination were troubling. This vexation is expressed in his Holy Sonnets. The Holy Sonnets depict, at times, a soul excusing itself from participation in the eternal laws of God. Since Donne’s interest rested in theology and law, it seems expected that his Holy Sonnets would take the form of spiritual meditations in the contexts of legal proceedings. The rule of law, in these legal proceedings, is the natural law. I intend to show that the natural law stands at the center of John Donne’s spirituality almost by necessity, and his use of the natural law may not always be deliberate but it is precise.

A Comparative Study of Tuberculosis Coming From Vietnam, the Philippines and Cambodia
Dominic Dizon
UCSF Fresno

The picture of active tuberculosis cases in California is changing in that majority of cases (71%) are now coming from the foreign-born. Here in Fresno county, although the most number of cases is among patients born in Mexico, the highest incidence rates are occurring among the Cambodians, Laotians (including Hmong and Hmien), Filipinos and Vietnamese. Fresno now has the 5th highest incidence rate in the state of California. This study compares the various case-finding, diagnosis and treatment strategies employed by the three highest incidence countries in southeast asia, namely Cambodia, Vietnam and the Philippines. This is a retrospective comparative analysis dating from 1995-2002 using relevant medical literature via MEDLINE and PUBMED as well internet searches using Google. This is supplemented by actual interviews of key medical personnel from the University Medical School in Hue, Vietnam as well as public health officials from the Regional Institute for Tropical Medicine in Alabang, Philippines. In Vietnam, the use of specific case-finding units called district treatment units had tremendously improved case-finding and treatment success and led to a reduction in annual incidence rates from 283 per 100,000 to 152 per 100,000 in 7 years. This is coupled by the use of DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) by government agencies whereby the medications are provided free of charge by the government. In the Philippines, although case-finding is improved by DOTS, patients prefer to buy the medications privately and end up taking these only until their symptoms improve. This had contributed to high drug-resistant cases. Moreover, because the government can only provide free medications to a third of patients infected, most patients end up being under-treated. This has led to continuing high incidence rates of 327 per 100,000. In Cambodia, the genetic susceptibility of Cambodians to infection tubeculosis suggested by genetic studies as well as high HIV rate in the country has led to the high incidence rates in southeast asia 537 per 100,000 and the second highest rate in the world. This is despite the fact that the communist regime also provides free medications to the population. Although strides in case-detection and treatment success had been reached by some of the high-burden countries in southeast asia, the fact remains that the battle against tuberculosis in this region has yet to reach favorable outcomes. Tuberculosis still remains as the leading infectious cause of death from a single organism in the world, and especially in this region. As a significant portion of the population in the Central San JoaquinValley is from this region, it is important that we understand and are educated on the efforts being made to diagnose, treat and control tuberculosis from southeast Asia.

Literacy: Decontextualization, and Social Situation
Christina Harralson
California State University, Fresno

The term literacy carries many implications, and has been used to mean many different things. Because of this, the way the term gets used often hides more than it illuminates. I have traced the use of the term "literacy" through a few seminal articles to illustrate that what counts as literacy is socially situated, even when the author presents the terms as being socially neutral. This project is a qualitative analysis that tracks the use of the term "literacy." In the 1930’s, E. L. Thorndike used literate to denote prescriptions for socially acceptable discourse, all of which focus on decontextualized features of reading and writing. In 1968, Jack Goody and Ian Watt’s "The Consequences of Literacy" suggests a Great Divide theory, which is a dichotomy that ignores context and history. The theories of Brian Street and Mike Rose to illustrate the need for understanding the context for the performance of literacy. In fact, literacy is a context specific performance that is embedded in social practices that are specific to that performance. Although much scholarship discusses it as though it is a neutral term, it is not because what is valued and assumed about literacy changes in both time and place. The context of literacy is important and often overlooked. The context of the researcher/author is equally important and overlooked even more often, which ultimately serves to impede understanding of the literacy practice.

Tobacco Use and Environmental Tobacco Exposure in a Southeast Asian Population: Norms, Networks and Behaviors
Deborah Helsel, Ph.D. & Judith Calvo, Ph.D.
CSU, Fresno

Tobacco Use and Environmental Tobacco Exposure in a Southeast Asian Population: Norms, Networks and Behaviors Oral Presentation Tobacco use norms were explored in this study of 301 young adolescent and adult Southeast Asian men and women in California’s Central Valley. Respondents from ages 16 to 65 were asked about personal tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure, perceptions of self-efficacy in quitting tobacco use, refusing tobacco promotional items and influencing others to do so. They were also asked about willingness to take action against secondhand smoke. Findings indicated a relatively high rate of secondhand smoke exposure, an early age of smoking initiation (younger than 10 in some cases), high prior and current smoking quantity per day and large networks of family and friends who smoke, which could present a considerable barrier to smoking cessation and outreach efforts within this group. About one-third of the respondents currently takes no action to prevent secondhand smoke exposure, although many others reported a willingness to do so. The risk of the negative health consequences associated with exposure to secondhand smoke is compounded by the fact that this population has already been identified as being at increased risk for a number of chronic conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Johnson, 1995). Many of these conditions could be triggered or exacerbated by personal tobacco use and/or environmental tobacco exposure. Population norms and behaviors identified by this research can be valuable in designing strategies to address educational intervention programs.

Petrarch’s Advice and What This Means to Humanists
Staci Grunau
CSU Fresno

At the onset of the Renaissance in Italy the "father of humanism" was becoming well known throughout the state for his rhetoric. What is important, however, was what he was doing with his talent and subsequent fame. It is Petrarch’s drive to influence others to do good and make something better of this world that was new to Renaissance thinkers. Previously, focus of philosophy had been solely on the heavenly realm of Christianity. During this time Petrarch began a chain of thought later termed humanism that said it was acceptable, even virtuous, to contemplate the here and now. Petrarch advocated that God put men on the earth with talents that they may use them for his glory; this included living a good life and spurring others to do the same. In How a Ruler Ought to Govern His State Petrarch wrote to the lord of Padua, Carrera, in order to advise him on the path his work in government should rightfully take. His letter reflects the style of the times and the social system of patronage that was prevalent in the fourteenth century. He opened with grand praise of the recipient and gave all of his advice with the addendum that he was sure Carrera already ruled in the manner he was describing. It was appropriate for Petrarch to write this way because he was addressing a man of status. In addition, he may have been trying to instill a pride in Carrera so that future actions would be stirred by a desire to live up to the letter’s praise. In my paper I evaluate the advice given by Petrarch to Carrera as well as the manner in which it was done. It is vital to the study of the Italian Renaissance to examine these things because of the place Petrarch holds in history’s School of Humanities. note: no audio-visual requirements, must fill in field, sorry

A Cross Sectional View of a Volcanic Plumbing System: Constraints Based on Mineral Chemistry
Keith Putirka, Christopher D. Condit
CSU Fresno, U. Mass. Amherst

Volcanic eruptions are responsible for creating everything that we see at Earth’s surface: the continental and ocean crusts, the oceans, and the atmosphere. Nonetheless, there is considerable controversy regarding how volcanic plumbing systems evolve. We attempt to resolve these controversies by examining the depths at which magma chambers form. It is often presumed that magmas pool at the base of low-density continental crust; in this model, volcanic eruptions occur after magma has been partially crystallized and become less dense. In contrast, some models of magma chamber development emphasize rock strength: Since magmas are transported to the surface within magma filled fractures, if a dike tip is sharp, it can cut through overlying rock and lead to an eruption. But if a dike tip blunted, due to the imposition of a weak rock layer, the fracture could fail to propagate. These models can be distinguished because they yield very different predictions about the depths at which magmas pond and partially crystallize. To test ideas of magma transport we investigate the plumbing system of the Springerville Volcanic Field, AZ. Crystallization depths are calculated using mineral composition-based barometers and thermometers. While these calculations show that crystallization occurs at a range of depths, magmas do not pond at the base of the crust (40 km). Moreover, our calculations show a coincidence of low crystallization temperatures, low magma densities and high K2O, K /Ti, and SiO2 values at 5 and 27 km. Magmas thus appear to stall at a ‘soft’ layer at the middle/lower crust boundary (27 km), and at a density contrast within the upper crust (5 km). In particular, elevated values of K2O, K /Ti, and SiO2, at these depths show that magmas undergo significant liquid evolution at 5 and 27 km -- signifying that these depths represent sites of prolonged magma stagnation.

Does Water Flow Become Unstable in All Soils?
Zhi Wang, William A. Jury, and Atac Tuli
Zhi Wang, Earth and Environmental Sciences Department, California State University Fresno; William A. Jury and Atac Tuli, Environmental Sciences Department, University of California, Riverside (ES)

Our laboratory and field experiments show that one of the most common occurrences in soil--the redistribution of water in the soil profile after irrigation or rainfall stops--will cause the infiltrating water to form narrow channels called fingers that can move much deeper than the rest of the water in the soil profile. Laboratory 2-Dimensional and 3-D experiments and plot experiments in the filed were conducted to investigate the effects of unstable flow on water and contaminant transport in the subsurface. Uniform sands and agricultural soils were irrigated using various depths (3-25 cm, 1.2-10 inches) of water application. After the cessation infiltration, the water was allowed to redistribute for up to 30 days. The water front movements in the processes were recorded using photography, freezing and molding, and trench facing. Experiments in a sandy soil showed that as little as 5 cm (2 inches) of water added to a dry soil would create fingers that could move more than 1 m (3.2 ft) during redistribution. In addition, the wetted pathways formed by the fingers persisted in soil for long periods of time, and were able to channel subsequent water applications as long as a month later. Experiments in the agricultural sandy and loamy soils showed that the wetting front became uneven during redistribution, producing wetted patches in the deeper layers of soil. The degree of instability decreased with the increase of soil fineness. Based on the observations, we created a conceptual mathematical model that describes the final position of the fingers as a function of measurable soil retention and hydraulic functions, plus relationships describing finger size and spatial frequency. The model predicts that all soils are unstable during redistribution, but shows that only coarse-textured soils containing a lot of sand will form fingers capable of moving more than a few inches deeper than the rest of the infiltrating water. "These findings help explain field observations of deep chemical movement in soils without cracks or holes that have baffled other scientists and myself for over 20 years" said co-author William Jury (Distinguished Professor of Soil Physics in the Department of Environmental sciences at UC Riverside). The research discovery has serious implications for agricultural water management in coarse-textured soils. Fingering can move water and agricultural chemicals below the crop root zone, which is costly and inefficient, and can increase the possibility of ground water contamination. Detailed experimentation and modeling results are reported in two articles published in the February 2003 issue of Vadose Zone Journal ( 1.

Factors Affecting Incomplete Excision of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Bahram Sohrabi and Abdolkarim Nasrabadi
Clovis West High School and VAMC Fresno

A. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (S.C.C.) is the second most common cancer amongst human beings. Incomplete excision of S.C.C. leads to recurrence which is difficult to treat. B. We reviewed the pathology reports of patients with cutaneous S.C.C. who had excision of their legion during 1991-2000. Data regarding the size, site, grade margins of the S.C.C. and the surgeon who performed the excision were compared for both groups of complete vs incomplete excisions. C. From 147 cases of cutaneous S.C.C. 115 cases had complete excision and 37 had incomplete excision. Site, size, grade of S.C.C. and the surgeon who performed the operation were not significantly different in either group. The only factor that was significantly different were the lateral margins. The average margin for completely a excised specimen was 3 mm or more. D. In order to avoid recurrence of cutaneous S.C.C., it should be excised with at least a lateral margin of 3 mm.

Effects of Among Site Variables on Riparian Vegetation Composition and Organic Matter Inputs on Headwater Streams of the Sierra Nevada
Dana K. Nagy, Ruth Ann Kern and Carolyn T. Hunsaker
Biology Department California State University, Fresno, USDA Forest Service, Fresno

Riparian vegetation composition and organic stream inputs will be quantified to assess variation of inputs to montane headwater streams due to compositional differences within the physical template. Riparian vegetation composition will be quantified using a combination of small vegetation monitoring plots located in the riparian zone of each stream and line-transects set up perpendicular to the direction of stream flow. Organic matter will be collected, using litter traps, accounting for both vertical and lateral inputs. Physical measurements, including slope, aspect, elevation, lithology, and stream dimensions will be recorded for each stream segment. In addition, the microhabitat of each stream segment will be characterized using soil moisture, soil temperature, air temperature, stream temperature, and humidity as well as canopy cover and light availability. Fieldwork will be conducted on eight headwater streams, one each on eight small watersheds within two basins on the Kings River Experimental Watershed (KREW), Sierra National Forest. The role of headwater streams is integral to the function and health of riverine systems within the Sierra Nevada. The results of this study will increase our understanding of the role of riparian vegetation for the Sierra Nevada and it’s importance as a link between lotic and upland systems.

Gender Differences and Hunger Status on Self-Esteem, and Anxiety: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Tee Jane Teh, Dr. Lynnette Zelezny
California State University, Fresno

This study aimed to examine the interaction between gender and hunger status on self-esteem, and anxiety. California State University, Fresno students (N=39) were given four questionnaires to assess hunger as measured by a self-designed hunger scale, self-esteem as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), anxiety as measured by the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983), and demographics as measured by a self-designed questionnaire. It was hypothesized that there would be an interaction between gender and hunger on self-esteem, and anxiety. Using a 2x2 factorial ANOVA, no significant interaction was found between gender and hunger status on self-esteem, F (1, 35) = .144, p = .706. Moreover, there were no significant gender differences on self-esteem, F (1, 35) = .003, p = .958, and no significant differences between levels of hunger on self-esteem, F (1, 35) = .163, p = .689. Similarly, there was no significant interaction between gender and hunger status on anxiety, F (1, 35) = .412, p = .525, and no significant gender differences on anxiety, F (1, 35) = .588, p = .448. However, significant differences between levels of hunger and anxiety was approaching statistical significance, F (1, 35) = 3.978, p = .054. In addition, exploratory post hoc analysis found a significant interaction between gender, ethnicity and anxiety, F (1, 21) = 4.346, p = .049.

Virtual Counseling: A Validation Study of the Academic Counseling Via Internet Facilities
Yury Kostin; Ron Unruh, Ph.D., Dissertation Chair
JDPEL CSU Fresno / UC Davis

While face-to-face academic counseling is still the primary method of service, with the growing popularity of electronic communication, on-line counseling or "Cyber Counseling" is increasingly considered to be a useful supplement or alternative to traditional one. This research was designed to investigate effectiveness of and comparison among counseling techniques involving dynamic aspects of Internet technologies implemented in academic counseling services on the postsecondary level of education. The primary purpose of this research was to determine to what extent an academic advising enhanced by integrated technologies can satisfy academic needs of students and provide assistance as students pursue their college education? After each academic advising session the questionnaire surveys, developed by Evaluation Survey Service (ESS) for American College Testing (ACT), had been administered to students who received regular counseling services offered to three counseling groups implementing videoconference, chat-room, and face-to-face counseling sessions. The findings of this study suggested that the Internet technologies were adequately instrumental in helping students get necessary information satisfying their academic needs. Although the results look bipolar because the traditional face-to-face counseling service was still the most popular (T-67%, V-73%, C-76%) the majority of students have preferred to use Internet technologies for academic advising purposes which they believe can satisfy their academic needs. Video conferencing participants were stronger supporters of virtual academic advising (T-79%, V-97%, C-76%) than other groups. Students participated in chat room session indicated that virtual academic counseling would be best serving for quick simple questions. The bipolarity of participants’ rating responses leads to conclusion that the applied digital technologies have a dividing effect on technology users. The majority of students who have experienced academic counseling via Internet technologies speak favorably of it. Students found the video conferencing and chat room interactivity easy and fun for both saving time and getting necessary academic advising.

The Evolution of Cognitive Predispositions: Hunting Adaptions
Matthew J. Sharps, Sarah Valkenburgh, Heather Stahl
California State University, Fresno

For most of humanity’s time on Earth, people lived as hunter-gatherers. It therefore seems probable that natural selection would have resulted in at least some cognitive specializations for this way of life. Our recent research has provided a strong experimental demonstration of this. Persons with no interest or experience in hunting or tracking nevertheless retained a significantly enhanced ability to remember and process animal tracks relative to other unfamiliar stimuli. The most parsimonious explanation of this finding lies in the idea of an evolutionary cognitive predisposition, useful to the hunter-gatherers of the ancient world, which has survived evolutionary time. If human beings possess such predispositions, especially in the realm of hunting-gathering (HG) behaviors, evidence of a continuing preoccupation with such behaviors should be evident in the art of peoples as they made the transition from HG to agrarian lifestyles. Native American peoples of the Ancient Southwest form the best sample to address this question, as they among world cultures made this transition relatively recently and left an abundance of superb rock art to document their preoccupations. To explore this suggestion, all available panels of rock art were photographed at six ancient, predominantly agrarian sites in Arizona and Utah, and the figures and abstractions analyzed. Results were consistent with these suggestions: human figures and game animals were the most common elements depicted, with no other figures or abstractions approaching these in number. No agricultural scenes or elements were depicted at all. Results indicate that a very strong interest in animals and hunting, at least in terms of recorded preoccupations, survived the transition from HG to the agrarian world for centuries, consistent, at this preliminary level, with the idea of the survival of HG-related cognitive predispositions. Results are considered in terms of the current trend toward increasingly sophisticated models in evolutionary psychology.

Cognition, Adult ADHD, and Substance Abuse
Jana L. Price Sharps, Matthew J. Sharps, Sandy Schulte Day, Amy Boothby Vilegas, and Michael A. Nunes
CSU, Fresno Dept. of Psychology

Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is associated with elevated levels of substance abuse, but the cognitive linkages involved have been little explored. Previous research in the authors’ laboratory has indicated that a primary cognitive difficulty in ADHD lies in the realm of contextual reasoning. This is the ability to incorporate and integrate information from the context of a decision (such as potential risks, benefits, and consequences) into the reasoning process itself. Since individuals with ADHD appear to have more difficulty with this type of reasoning than those without the condition, it may be a failure of contextual reasoning, a failure to consider the full spectrum of risks and conseqences of substance abuse, which underlies the link between ADHD and substance abuse behavior. The present study used the Brown ADD Scales, the Six-Way Paragraphs, and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory to investigate this issue and these relationships. The results were consistent with the hypotheses advanced. Regression analyses were used to find that the ability to sustain attention is necessary to formulate an understanding of the most important aspects of any given piece of information, and that the diminished ability to sustain attention associated with ADHD tends to impair the type of cognition under consideration, contextual reasoning, in the active decision-making processes involved in substance abuse. These cognitive tendencies in turn were shown to be associated with elevated levels of substance abuse. The results show the importance of developing an understanding of the cognitive processes involved in substance abuse behavior, and of cognitive linkages between substance abuse and conditions such as ADHD.

Chest X-Ray Interpretation: An Educational Module
Michael Comerford
CSU, Fresno

The objective of this project is to provide the Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) with basic skill in chest x-ray interpretation through a standardized approach. The purpose is to train the APN in utilizing a logical, systematic, and thorough method of evaluating a chest x-ray. The significance is to promote accuracy and reduce errors for optimum patient outcomes. The method of instruction is a power point presentation of educational material, chest x-ray slides, and demonstration of a check-sheet assessment tool. Through this instructional program, the APN will develop skill in identifying normal and abnormal findings and be able to identify twelve common disease abnormalities. Theories from Knowles and Watson were applied as guiding principals in providing this APN training.

Legal Controversies Related to Brown v. Board of Education
Alicia J. Rivera
CSU, Fresno

Objective Following the Brown v. Board of Education landmark decision, Charles L. Black, who was professor of Jurisprudence at Yale University for thirty years, wrote in his essay: "The Lawfulness of the Segregation Decisions": "If the cases outlawing segregation were wrongly decided, then they ought to be overruled." The objective of this study is to present the legal controversy that arose following the Brown v. Board of Education decision. Following the decision, the media and the legal community called the ruling a "psychological ruling" because of its wording, which had strong psychological undertones. This gave way to the controversy of whether Brown was a decision based on the law or based on psychology? Does the law have the right to borrow knowledge from other disciplines? Finally, if Brown was not a decision based on the law; should it be invalidated? Summary of Method This research consulted an array of primary sources among which is the book Argument, which offers a word by word account of the Court proceedings in the Brown case. I also consulted several books by the best known authorities on Brown such as Richard Kluger’s Simple Justice. I also analyzed legal scholastic journals which presented the controversy such as Annual Survey of American Law and contemporary newspapers such as the New York Times. Conclusion This paper concludes that the controversy arose mainly because the legal system was not accustomed to the cooperation of other disciplines in legal proceedings. Consequently, the legal community advocated a discourse of legal orthodoxy. Within this context the marriage of law with other disciplines such as psychology and sociology represented a very innovative concept within the legal community of 1954.

Laboratory Investigations on Behaviors of Grassiella sp. (Thysanura: Nicoletiidae: Atelurinae) a Nest Associate of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmecinae)
Christopher A. Hamm and Robert R. Baldridge
CSU, Fresno Department of Biology

Behavioral interactions of the myrmecophile, Grassiella sp. (Thysanura: Nicoletiidae: Atelurinae), with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) were studied under laboratory conditions. Grassiella responded to but did not follow recruitment trails deposited by workers. Grassiella responded to and did follow trails deposited by workers transporting brood of S. invicta. In ‘choice’ tests, Grassiella showed strongest responses to sites that held workers tending brood compared to sites holding workers or brood only or to the ‘control’ site. S. invicta flooding ‘rafts’ did not contain Grassiella after flooding of laboratory nests. Grassiella floated immobile on the surface of the water with no seeming response to the flooded workers. Grassiella survived prolonged periods of floating on water surface. Other behaviors of Grassiella and S. invicta during the above interactive situations are reported. Gross morphology of Grassiella, viewed using a scanning electron microscope, is reported. Hypotheses relating selected morphologies and behaviors in the laboratory are presented.

Fathers & Breastfeeding: A Study of Partners of Low-income Women
Mimi Mott-Smith FNP MPH
CSUF Dept of Health Science, & UCSF-Fresno Family Medicine Prog

FATHERS AND BREASTFEEDING: A STUDY OF PARTNERS OF LOW-INCOME WOMEN Mimi Mott-Smith FNP MPH Dept. of Health Science, CSUF/ UCSF-Fresno Family Medicine Program The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions, feelings, knowledge, experience, and attitudes about breastfeeding among the partners of low-income women, using qualitative research methodology. Previous research has documented low breastfeeding rates among low-income women, and suggested that fathers play an important role in the decision to breastfeed. Twenty-one men aged 18-52 were interviewed at agencies serving low-income families, using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for salient concepts and categories using NUDIST 4 software. Subjects’ responses were grouped into 10 categories: initial responses, the breastfeeding decision, benefits and disadvantages of breastfeeding, experience, knowledge, the father’s role, the couple relationship, inclusion, privacy, and barriers to breastfeeding. Most fathers demonstrated positive attitudes towards breastfeeding and wanted to be part of the feeding decision. Most had little knowledge or experience with breastfeeding, although several knew that infant formula was much more expensive. When asked about their role in breastfeeding, most fathers strongly expressed the notion of being there for the mother and child, and were hyper-aware of the phenomenon of absent fathers. Fathers also commented about such issues as jealousy, changes in their relationship with their partners, public breastfeeding, and feelings of exclusion versus inclusion. A few fathers said breastfed babies cried more and this made them harder to care for while the mother was working. Based on the fathers’ comments and observations, suggestions are made for public health policy, clinical practice, and further research.

Fire intensity and shrub cover effects on microclimate and tree regeneration in Sierra Nevada Forests
Ryan P. Lopez, Ruth A. Kern
California State University, Fresno

A field experiment was conducted to test the effects of fire intensity and the presence of the montane shrubs Ceanothus cordulatus and Arctostaphylos patula on the growth and survival of Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana seedlings. Nine experimental plots were located at 2200 m elevation within the Teakettle Experimental Forest, Sierra National Forest, California, USA. Each plot was roughly circular, approximately 225 m2, and had extant patches of C. cordulatus and A. patula as well as open ground before treatment. The plots were subject to one of three burn treatments: hot, light, or no burn (control). In the first spring following the fall burn treatments, one-year old bareroot A. concolor and P. lambertiana seedlings were planted in the (former or current) patches of C. cordulatus, A. patula and in the open. Plots were instrumented and monitored for air and soil temperature as well as surface and seedling rooting depth soil moisture. In this way, we intended to study the possible facilitating effects of nitrogen enhancement in the proximity of C. cordulatus, root grafting with A. patula, or simple shade vs. the possible competing effects of shrub presence. Extreme drought led to a small seedling survival rate (2.5%), compromising meaningful statistical analysis of seedling growth and survival data. There was a positive correlation between seedling growth and soil moisture, which was highest in the unburned plots. A high proportion of the surviving seedlings were P. lambertiana, suggesting greater adaptation to hot, dry conditions than A. concolor seedlings. Survivorship and microclimate data suggest that current conditions present severe difficulty for tree regeneration. With low moisture and the exposed ridgetop location, the effect of fire may be to convert patches of forest to shrub community, thereby resetting the pathway of succession.

Training Physicians in Children’s Mental Health: Are We There Yet?
Deborah C. Stewart, MD; Hoyle Leigh, MD; Ronna Mallios, MPH
UCSF Fresno

Training Pediatricians in Children’s Mental Health: Are We There Yet? Deborah C. Stewart, M.D. Hoyle Leigh, M.D. Ronna Mallios, M.D. UCSF Fresno The purpose of the study was to evaluate the perceived adequacy of pediatrics residency training in child mental health issues and to identify areas of further curriculum need in this area. A questionnaire was sent to all US pediatrics residency program directors surveying the current status and desired future of training of pediatrics residents in child mental health issues. 206 pediatrics residency program directors were sent surveys, with a 33% response rate. An overwhelming majority (84%) of program directors indicated that they felt the amount of training in children’s mental health issues was minimal or suboptimal. Only 17% were satisfied with the training residents received. With regard to specific topic areas, the areas identified most frequently as adequate include: ADHD (65%) and eating disorders (65%). The topic areas less frequently cited as adequate include mood disorders (38%), conduct disorders (30%), substance abuse (30%), and diagnostic interviewing (30%). Least frequently cited as adequate were: psychopharmacology (20%), and counseling (26%). With regards to training venue, less than 15% of programs had inpatient-based child psychiatry training, while only 25% described ambulatory training by psychiatrist or mental health professionals. Only 27% of programs stated that their residents had a formal psychiatry rotation. In summary, pediatric program directors in the US feel that the amount of training in child mental health which pediatrics residents currently receive is very inadequate in a very broad range of child mental health areas. Clinical teaching is identified as the venue most desired for training. These data will be useful in designing future curricula in child mental health for pediatrics residency programs.

The Effects of Logging and Prescribed Fire on Fecundity and Seed Dispersal of Sierran Conifers
Ruth Ann Kern
California State University, Fresno

Seed rain is being monitored in experimental forest treatment plots to investigate the effects of thinning and prescribed fire on seed production and seed dispersal distances of Sierra Nevada conifers. 18 1-ha forest research plots, established in the Teakettle Experimental Watershed, Sierra National Forest, have been manipulated in a 2 x 3 factorial design (fire or no fire; shelterwood thinning, California Spotted Owl protocol (CASPO) thinning, or no thinning) with three replicates of each treatment. 25 0.25m2 seed traps have been installed on a 25-m grid in each of the 18 plots. Seed traps were installed in the control plots in summer 2000 and 2001 and in the treatment plots in summer 2001 and 2002, following completion of logging and fire treatments in summer and fall 2001. Data from this long-term study will be used to understand the individual and cumulative effects of the two methods of logging and of prescribed burning on seed production and seed dispersal distances in White Fir, Red Fir, Sugar Pine, Jeffrey Pine, and Incense Cedar.

An investigation into the Pinus sabiniana range discontinuity in the Kings, Kaweah, and Tule watersheds
Robin Ann Brake and Ruth Ann Kern
California State University Fresno

Blue oak woodlands are California’s most common hardwood forest, covering nearly three million acres. These woodlands are endangered due to increasing blue oak senescence, as well as environmental stresses related to pollution, suburban expansion, rural building, firewood harvesting, and agricultural/ranching enterprises. Pinus sabiniana is a dominant endemic species of the valley and foothill woodlands surrounding the San Joaquin Valley in California. P. sabiniana, or gray pine, is inexplicably missing in a fifty-five mile segment on the southeastern portion of its potential range. This study hypothesized that P sabiniana does not grow in the gap due to an environmental gradient established by slope and aspect compared to those areas that do support the species. Field sampling was conducted in foothill woodland research sites situated north, south, and within the range gap at 15 locales in Fresno, Tulare, and Kern counties. Data was collected for 900 point samples during the spring/summer season 2002 and 2003. All tree and shrub species within each point sample were identified and recorded along with the environmental variables of slope, aspect, potential radiation, topographic position, slope configuration, elevation, and the nature and degree of disturbance. Data will be examined using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and analysis of covariance to describe the relationship between P. sabiniana distribution and physical site factors. This study is significant in providing much needed research into a historically under-studied community. Because the gray pine is a major associate in the blue oak foothill woodland community, solving the P. sabiniana range discontinuity mystery will add one more piece of information required to sustain the community in a scientifically appropriate manner.

Familial Mediterranean Fever In a Pediatric Hispanic Population
Michael Henrickson, MD
Children’s Hospital Central California, Madera, CA

Background: We have identified 21 children who present with a periodic fever syndrome involving a symptom complex, including arthralgias and oligoarthritis, pleuritis, abdominal pain and fatigue. Episodes are associated with moderate-grade fever, whose duration and severity parallel these other symptoms. Lab evaluation of these patients is typically normal, other than an elevated sedimentation rate during episodes. The clinical history and ameliorative effects of colchicine are highly suggestive of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive disorder. MEFV gene mutations have been linked to FMF, mainly resulting from 6 founder mutations (M680I, M694V, M694I, V726A, E148Q and K695R). Phenotypic variance has been mainly ascribed to MEFV allelic heterogeneity. Objective: There is a paucity of literature regarding FMF in the Hispanic population, specifically among Mexicans, and the blended ethnicities of the American population. This descriptive study reviews gene mutation assay findings in this juvenile cohort. Method: Retrospective chart review was performed. All patients had MEFV testing; they were completed at either the NIH/NIAMS (16/21) or GeneDx, Inc. (5/21). Patients with a gene mutation for TNF-receptor associated periodic syndrome or an elevated IgD were excluded. The local population < 20 years of age is 40% Hispanic, 34% Caucasian and 21% Asian. Results: Average age of FMF onset for the entire cohort is 4.3 years, and 2.8 years in the 6 patients with identified gene mutations (p=0.32). Regarding ethnicity, 4/21 (19%) cite partial Mexican ethnicity, and another 2/21 (10%) are exclusively Mexican, for a total of 6/21 (29%). Of these 6 Mexican patients, the mean age of FMF onset was 5.2 years (p=0.60). Only 1 Mexican/Filipina patient had a heterozygous gene mutation both in M694V and E148Q; all other Mexican patients’ MEFV gene mutations were negative. Identified Gene Mutations by Ethnicity Ethnicity

Foster Children’s Attachment Behaviors in Visitations with Non-Custodial Parents
Brandy Lucas, Carolyn W. Graham Ph.D
California State University, Fresno

The goal of this study was to gain knowledge about the attachment relationship between foster children and their non-custodial parents in a supervised visitation setting. It was predicted that foster children would exhibit more negative than positive behaviors toward their non-custodial parent at initial interaction. It was also hypothesized that a significant number of foster children would exhibit insecure attachment, as measured by the presence or absence of positive and negative behaviors at initiation and separation. At the beginning and end of each session, supervisors indicated if the children smiled, kissed, hugged, had positive verbal interaction, cried, appeared withdrawn, sad, or clinged to the parent. The first hypothesis was tested by using paired t-tests, which found that significantly more negative behaviors than positive behaviors were exhibited during the initial interaction period, t (46) = -5.28, p = .000. The mean number of negative behaviors was 2.79 (SD = .69) and positive behaviors was 2.04 (SD = 1.14). Secondly, we hypothesized that more foster children would exhibit more insecure behaviors than secure behaviors. Securely attached children should exhibit more positive behaviors at initial interaction with their parents and more negative behaviors (i.e., crying, sad, withdrawn) at separation from their parents. To test this hypothesis we subtracted the number of positive behaviors from the number of negative behaviors at initial interaction. A 2 X 2 chi-square was performed to determine if the group frequency was significantly different. The chi-square was significant, c2 (N = 46, 1) = 8.52, p = .004. There were only 4 (8.6%) foster children who exhibited secure behaviors at initiation and separation. The support of both hypotheses indicates that attachment behaviors are important in assessing the quality of the parent-child relationship of foster children. The majority (91.7%) of foster children in this study exhibited insecurely oriented attachment styles.

Analysis of Changes in PSA Levels with Reference to Recurrence of Prostate Cancer
Uma Mohanasundaram, M.D., Atsuko Shibata, M.D., Ph.D.
UCSF Fresno

Analysis of Changes in PSA Levels with reference to Recurrence of Prostate Cancer Presentation Preference: Poster Atsuko Shibata, M.D., Ph.D. Uma Mohanasundaram, M.D. UCSF Fresno 8153 N Cedar, apt#230 Fresno, CA 93720 (650) 430 1103 Objectives: Prostate cancer screening detects tumors that would never have reached the symptomatic stage resulting in controversies about management. This study is conducted to determine if there is any change in both PSA and grading of cancer between biopsy and surgery and to examine recurrence rate of PSA during the years of follow up after radical prostatectomy among the groups with different levels of PSA and grade change. Methods: This study includes 151 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and who had undergone radical prostatectomy from VA Palo Alto. Changes in the level of PSA and Gleason grading sum of prostate cancer between the time of biopsy and surgery were considered as the variables of interest with PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy as the outcome. Results: There is significant change in PSA level between biopsy and surgery (P-0.01) and a significant change in sum of grading between biopsy and surgery (P<0.0001). A model Chi square test statistic provided a p value of 0.0040 showing that there is significant association between change in PSA and PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy and a chi square test p value of 0.7487 showed that there is no significant associaton between change in grading and PSA recurrence after surgery. After a follow up period of 3.2 years, the esimated odds ratio of 1.248 with 95%CI of (1.064,1.465) showed that the odds of PSA recurrence increased by 4.8% for each unit change in PSA level between biopsy and prostatectomy. The esimated odds ratio of 1.019 with 95%CI of (0.907,1.146) showed that the odds of PSA recurrence increased by 1.9% for each unit change in grading between biopsy and prostatectomy. The esimated odds ratio of 1.1.249 with 95%CI of (1.065,1.466) for change in PSA and 1.026 with 95% CI of (0.910,1.158) for change in grading showed that the odds of PSA recurrence increased by 4.9% for each unit change in PSA level between biopsy and prostatectomy and increased by 2.6% for each unit change in grading when both the variables are used in the model. Conclusions: There is significant change in the level of PSA and grading sum of cancer between biopsy and surgery. There is an association between changes in PSA levels and PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. No association observed between changes in grading sum of cancer and PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

Improving Empathy, Knowledge, and Helping Behavior Towards the Hungry: Evaluating the Interactive Seminar, Hunger 101.
Amanda Knapp & Lisa Winters
California State University Fresno

The purpose of this study was to examine any alteration in subjects’ empathy, knowledge, and helping behavior towards the hungry after attending the Hunger 101 seminar. The Hunger 101 seminar was an hour of informative lecture followed by a second hour of role-playing activity that focused on the hungry. Subjects were thirty-one college students (6 males, 25 females), who completed the Hunger 101 Evaluation prior to, immediately after, and one month after attending the Hunger 101 seminar. The Hunger 101 Evaluation was a self-designed questionnaire composed of three open-ended questions and sixteen closed-ended questions designed to measure the three dependent variables of the study. It was predicted that subjects’ empathy, knowledge, and helping behavior towards the hungry would increase after attending the Hunger 101 seminar. This study found significant differences in subjects’ empathy, F (2,85)=3.114, p=.050, knowledge, F (2,85)=100.170, p=.001, and helping behavior towards the hungry, F (2,85)=4.730, p=.001, after attending the Hunger 101 seminar.

Online Data Collection of Secondary Agricultural Education Data
Michael Spiess
California State University, Fresno

The California Department of Education’s Agricultural Education Unit has been collecting secondary agricultural teacher and student demographic data for many years. In the past, paper forms (R-2) were processed at the regional level and the summary data by region was passed along to the state level. The R-2 contains data about the teacher (salary, teaching schedule, credential type) and a summary of students by year in agriculture, grade level, gender, ethnicity, and program area. In the year 2000, an on-line system was developed to allow entry of this data into a centralized database. The on-line forms mirrored the paper form and data was entered by the regional staff from the paper forms. In 2001 teachers were encouraged to enter their data on-line or submit it electronically using a provided program. However, paper forms were allowed and these were entered regionally by the state staff. For 2002 teachers were required to provide this data either using the on-line form or by uploading data using the provided program. The student summary of the R-2 was replaced by on-line entry of the FFA roster (previously submitted on paper) from which the summary data for the R-2 student data is automatically derived. The system is used by 322 agriculture programs (668 teachers) in California. The R-2 Report is due on October 15th of each year. 58% of schools reported by October 15, and 89% reported by November 15th. 58% of FFA Rosters were reported by October 15th and 88% reported by November 15th. Many teachers reported that it easier to report on-line since prior data was available as a starting point and the teacher did not have to find the form or mail it. Labor savings was achieved by combining the Roster and R-2 student summary since teachers no longer needed to summarize the student data. Labor is also saved at the state level since the paper data is not converted to electronic form. The data was reviewed and corrected for all three years for obvious errors. Two percent of women reported being male (the first choice of a drop down menu). Three percent of teachers reversed their first and last names. Three teachers were found to have copied the previous year’s data and never updated it for the current year. While not all 668 secondary agricultural teachers in California embrace this technology, more data was received sooner than with the previous paper reporting method. The availability of a database of researchable data has created research opportunities for agricultural educators across the state. Although not expressly studied and measured, state staff expressed that the accuracy of the data entered online was equal or better then the paper reports previous used for teacher demographics. FFA Roster data and student demographic data reporting was improved since these numbers rarely matched in the past and the new system uses the same data to generate both reports.

An Assesment of the Economic Feasibility of Using Raisins as an Ethanol Feedstock
Kristen E. Callens, Dr. Ellen Burnes
California State University, Fresno

As the 2003 Raisin vines begin to bud, a year’s supply of raisins still remains in storage at a price of $250/ton -- an eight-year low price. One suggestion has been made to use the raisins in reserve as ethanol feedstocks. In addition to its use in the beverage industry, ethanol is also an oxygenate used in gasoline. California has mandated that ethanol be used in place of MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) by January 1, 2004. It is estimated that 900 million gallons of ethanol will be required to meet California fuel demands. Among California crops with ethanol feedstock potential, raisins have the highest ethanol yield per ton. Each year the raisin industry determines what percentage of the crop goes to food markets and what percentage is diverted to storage. In this paper, we analyze raisin prices, look at the level of production and allocation between market and storage, and determine possible returns raisins would bring if converted to ethanol. We compare these values to those of raisins sold from storage to food markets. We note that storage is $11/ton/month. This implies a calculable breakeven point where it is optimal to convert raisins to ethanol, than to store for later distribution to the food sector. While our research shows that it is not optimal to divert raisins to ethanol every year, in six years between 1991 and 2000 a California ethanol industry could have been beneficial to raisin growers. The information discovered through this project may benefit the raisin industry as well as California as a whole. A California-based ethanol industry would provide potentially beneficial economic opportunities for local agricultural producers and communities. The contribution of this research is the systematic approach that we develop to evaluate the conditions of economic feasibility for converting raisins into ethanol.

Development of a Method to Detect Water-Soluble Accelerants in Arson Debris for Forensic Laboratories
Julie Rodriguez, Jarrad Wagner, Ph.D.
California State University Fresno

A method to detect water-soluble accelerants in arson debris was needed by the California Department of Justice (CAL DOJ) Fresno Regional Crime Laboratory for the examination of evidence from fire scenes. In collaboration with criminalists from CAL DOJ and professors from California State University, Fresno, a method was developed that would give reliable results and could be practically implemented. The operational parameters of a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument, including oven temperature, column flow rate and split ratio were adjusted so that a mixture of methanol, ethanol, acetone and iso-propanol (the accelerants of interest) were separated. A method for extracting these analytes from arson debris was developed and tested for interferences and effectiveness with real-world samples. The accelerants were extracted from the samples by suspending a carbon strip in a sealed paint can over the sample and heating it for twenty to twenty five minutes. After heating, N-propanol was used to rinse the carbon strip in order to get the accelerants into a solution for analysis by GC-MS. There was an absence of interference with accelerant extraction from burned or unburned carpet, wood and drywall. However, there was significant interference with the analysis of acetone when moisture (in the form of water) was added to the samples. A mixture of all the accelerants was used to ignite controlled fires and each accelerant was detected on the resulting charred carpet, wood and dry-wall samples. This method is useful to the crime laboratory because it will enable them to prove the presence of water-soluble accelerants in arson cases where they have been used. In addition, the newly developed method is easily implemented as it is compatible with existing equipment in its current configuration.

Paired Watershed Study in the Forests of the Sierra Nevada
Marie Lynch
PSW Research USFS

Paired Watershed Study in the Forests of the Sierra Nevada Region Marie Lynch PSW Research, Watershed USDA Forest Service Paired watershed studies have been employed world wide to determine the effects of land management changes on various ecosystems. Results from past studies have offered a wealth of resources to developing models, justifying various treatments while placing scientifically defensible limits on others. Little data exists, however, on the first-order streams in the Forests of the Sierra Nevada. Kings River Experimental Watershed (KREW) aims to determine the effects of management changes on the hydrologic regime of headwater stream ecosystems and their associated watersheds. It is unknown, for instance: 1) What effect fire and fuel reduction treatments will have on the riparian and stream physical, chemical and biological conditions; 2) Whether the use of prescribed fire will increase or decrease the rate of erosion and affect soil health and productivity; 3) How adequate and effective the current stream buffers are at protecting the aquatic ecosystems. The KREW study is designed as a long-term study lasting a minimum of 15 years starting in 2000. KREW is gathering baseline data on the condition of the headwater streams and their associated watersheds for 3 years, and then will gather 7 to 10 years worth of post-treatment data. There are four watersheds per site, ranging from 100 hectares to 300 hectares. One will have no treatment (control), one will have prescribed fire only, one will have mechanical treatment, and one will have fire and mechanical treatment done on it. The watershed study is holistic in nature in that KREW will evaluate physical, chemical, and biological variables. Components of the study include ecology, geology and soils, chemistry, hydrology and climate, vegetation, land use history, modeling and spatial analysis for fire and erosion. We will show the various instruments used in the study, and present stream discharge and chemistry and meteorology data collected thus far.

Regular Flow-Direction-Switching Increased Elimination Capacity In A Vapor-Phase Biofilter During Transient Loading Events
William F. Wright(1), Edward D. Schroeder(2) and Daniel P.Y. Chang(3) Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, California State University, Fresno; (2) Emeritus Professor and (3) Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis.

Transient loading of vapor-phase biofilters may result in exceedence of the local reaction or mass transfer capacity of the inlet region. In such cases higher concentrations of contaminants are carried deeper into the bed and, in some cases, breakthrough of contaminants may occur. The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that periodic reversal of the flow direction would result in improved transient loading response. The hypothesis was tested by applying step function increases in contaminant concentration to conventional unidirectional flow and experimental flow-direction-switching laboratory reactors (150 mm I.D.) operated in parallel at a nominal (baseline) contaminant concentration of 107 ppmv, air flow rate of 0.018 m3/minute, and empty-bed residence time of 1.0 minute. Contaminant concentration was monitored at several points along the packed bed length prior to and during transient loading events. Toluene was used as the model contaminant compound and volumetric flowrate was held constant throughout the study. The primary hypothesis of the study was supported when reaction capacity increased by up to 85-percent and breakthrough of untreated contaminant was eliminated or reduced during transient loading events as a result of periodic flow-direction-switching. Relative to unidirectional mode of operation, periodic flow reversal produced a more uniform distribution of biomass and of cell-mediated reaction capacity along the length of the packed bed which effectively increased active biofilm-vapor interfacial area, and potential mass transfer rates. Development of operating strategies to minimize breakthrough will allow more extensive application of vapor-phase biofiltration technology. Moreover, information developed in this study should provide a more complete basis for establishing monitoring regulations for vapor-phase biofiltration systems.

Pompey’s Sole Consulship in 52 BC: The Proverbial Last Straw
Jeffery S. McMullen
California State University, Fresno

Pompey’s Sole Consulship in 52 BC: The Proverbial Last Straw Presentation Preference: Oral Sponsor: Dr. Pamela D. Lackie Jeff McMullen Jeff McMullen, Undergraduate Student of History California State University, Fresno 521 S. 19th Ave; Lemoore, CA 93245 (559) 924-2116 The so-called "First Triumvirate" formed in 60 BC by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and Marcus Licinius Crassus was successful at monopolizing political authority in Rome and virtually superseding the power of the Senate and the people. Nevertheless, it was a precarious alliance that nearly ended in 58 BC over the exile of Cicero. While the triumvirate was reestablished during the conference at Luca in 56 BC, more troubling obstacles lay in wait for the coalition. The deaths of Julia in 54 BC and Crassus in 53 BC weakened the lasting pact between Pompey and Caesar. However, what remained of their cooperative enterprise did not end until 52 BC. The presentation will be based on some secondary sources for a general knowledge of Roman political institutions and governmental structures, but will rely more heavily on primary sources for contemporary reports and interpretations. The presentation will be organized chronologically, highlighting the major events that precipitated the end of the "First Triumvirate". There is a great deal of primary and secondary information that deal with this period in Roman history. However, most secondary sources claim that Crassus’ death in 53 BC marked the end of the so-called "First Triumvirate". These sources minimize the significant role played by Caesar’s political opponents in manipulating Pompey. The main tool of manipulation was allowing Pompey the unprecedented position of sole consul in 52 BC. Thereafter, Pompey and Caesar become pitted against each other in a war that tore the Roman Republic apart. The sole consulship of Pompey in 52 BC was the proverbial last straw that ended the "First Triumvirate". From that point on, Pompey was arrogant and overconfident. Thereafter he was easily manipulated by Caesar’s opponents in Rome, ultimately culminating with the Civil War and the end of the Roman Republic.

Intelligent Facilitation Agent: Automating Group Meeting Facilitation
Ivan Kurniawan, Ojoung Kwon, Karen Dill Bowerman
California State University, Fresno

Complex and rapidly changing business environment has made people work in groups more than ever before. Group Decision Support System (GDSS) is a software that is designed to assist groups to make optimal decisions. Even though GDSS, such as CyberCollaboratory, has improved the quality of group decisions, it is still manually facilitated which potentially causes two problems--the success of a group is too dependent on how well its facilitator conduct group meetings, and excessive control exercised by a facilitator may inhibit group creativity and thus group performance. Intelligent Facilitation Agent (IFA) has been developed and implemented on CyberCollaboratory to solve these problems by automating group meeting facilitations. IFA is developed on Lotus Notes/Domino R5 and designed to facilitate asynchronous web-based group meetings. Four meeting flavors were also created to ease IFA setup for group meetings. To evaluate the effectiveness of IFA as a facilitator, sixty Craig School of Business students volunteered to participate in IFA testing. They were asked to participate in group discussions for two weeks and fill out the survey at the end of their discussions. Many of them indicated IFA as a facilitator did a good job. They enjoyed their group discussions and felt increases in their group work productivity and efficiency.

JiaJia Chen, Dr.Erin Dormedy, Dr.Smilanick

Antimicrobial effect of ozone was evaluated in this study. Ozone gas was applied to whole fresh avocados in a closed chamber. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was cultured on to nutrient agar and applied to the surface of each avocado. After ozone treatment and shaking, the solution was plated and incubated for different periods to detect and quantify E. coli, natural populations of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and natural yeast and mold populations. Ozone reduced E. coli populations to the minimum detection limit. Natural microbe populations were low and more resistant to ozone treatment. Reduction in these populations by ozone was one log or less. E. coli populations applied to the surface of the fruit were eliminated by ozone at relatively low doses, while natural microbe populations, particularly fungi, were much more resistant.

Voter Registration as a Predictor of Jury Bias
Petra Smith, Shelby Palmer
Alliant International University

In California the current draw for some counties’ federal court juries (e.g., Fresno County) uses only voter registration lists. Using only voter registration as a source for juror candidates is often standard practice in selecting juries; yet, voter registration roles do not include all jury-eligible members of a community. This study examined whether the use of only voter registration lists contributes to a degree of bias in the current makeup of the jury in federal cases. This study utilized the pretrial jury bias questionnaire to assessed participants’ possible juror bias in terms of reasonable doubt, legal confidence, legal cynicism, racial attitudes, privilege, and belief in innate criminality. In order to evaluate the relationship between voter registration and juror bias several statistical test were conducted. Statistical tests indicated that registered and nonregistered voters have dissimilar beliefs on the pretrial jury bias questionnaire. There was a significant relationship between voter registration and pretrial juror bias (p < .05). Of the individual subscales, legal cynicism, privilege, and racial attitudes had a significant relationship with voter registration. Statistical tests also indicated that age is a significant predictor of voter registration (p < .01). Results suggest that court circuits/district, which use only voter registration lists to draw potential jurors, are contributing to a biased jury. Registered and nonregistered voters appear to have dissimilar ideologies regarding crime, justice, and punitive measures. Results also suggest that age is a significant predictor of voter registration. Younger persons may have different ideologies regarding crime, justice, and punitive measures. Different ideologies may have an effect on, not only a person’s individual decision on the jury, but also on their persuasion of other jurors’ opinions. If young people are not making it into the jury pool due to their failure to register to vote, then their ideologies are not making it into the deliberation process.

Medical residents fatigue with traditional call and night float call
Phanucharas J, Kerr L, Van Gundy K,

Medical Resident Fatigue with traditional call and Night Float call For years, medical training programs have utilized a traditional call system requiring residents to work 24-36 continuous hours. Blame regarding medical errors, car accidents, physical, and emotional well-being has been attributed to lack of sleep and extended working hours by resident physicians. In response to these concerns, the American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has posted new requirements of training programs mandating hours of work to not exceed 30 continuous hours. Many programs have responded to these requirements by adopting a night float system for coverage. However, limited data exists regarding resident physician call schedules and its effects on performance. We compare both call schedules, traditional call (24-30 continuous work hours) versus night float (12-14 continuous overnight hours with sleep scheduled during daylight hours), to assess if a difference exists in level of alertness. Performance vigilance testing in conjunction with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Stanford Sleep Scale was used pre- and post-call for both call systems. Preliminary results for residents performing traditional call have shown a statistically significant difference between pre- call (mean 222.4 msec, SD 30.4) and post-call (mean 242.4 msec, SD 45.5) response times (p 0.017, n=9). Insufficient subject numbers have been enrolled in this ongoing study to determine if a statistically significant difference exists between night float and traditional call. Although this data already shows that there is significant fatigue after traditional call. Currently, not statistically significant yet, there is a large difference between traditional call and the night float system, with the night float call not showing evidence of fatigue as compared to the rested residents."

Gay Identity and Anger in Homosexual Relationships
Ryan Gonzalez
California State University, Fresno

This study is a literature review that explores the development of a gay identity and the influence it has on the experience of anger within a homosexual relationship. There are three models of gay identity formation that this study examines. These are the Homosexual Identity Formation (Cass, 1979), an ideal-typical model of homosexual identity formation (Troiden, 1989), and an inclusive model of sexual minority identity formation (McCarn & Fassinger, 1996). After an examination of the different frameworks of homosexual identity formation, this study uses the multidimensional-associationistic framework (Edmondson & Conger, 1996) to describe how anger processes are affected by gay identity development. Included in the multidimensional-associationistic conceptualization of anger are provocations, a cognitive component, an experiential component, a behavioral component, and a physiological component. To fully understand the interaction between gay identity models and the experience of anger, an analysis of specific provocations is conducted. Included in these provocations are six general areas: power, social issues, personal flaws, distrust, intimacy, and personal distance (Kurdek, 1994). This study provides a theoretical basis explaining the relationship between gay identity development and the cognitive, experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses (Tescher et al., 1999) to the provocations experienced by homosexual couples. An exploration of the relationship between gay identity and anger generates ideas for future research in which this relationship can be empirically tested.

Cancer in the South Asian Population of California
Ratnali V Jain, Paul K Mills.
Cancer Registry of Central California

Cancer in the South Asian Population of California Introduction: The South Asian (SA) population in the United States (people with origins mainly in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh) is increasing and more so in the State of California. In the 1990 census about 155,000 Asian Indians were identified as living in California and this number increased to about 315,000 in the 2000 census. Since 1988, California has maintained a statewide population-based cancer registry, the California Cancer Registry (CCR) and data from the CCR were utilized to examine patterns of cancer in the SA population of the state. Methods: Since accurate denominator data was not available for the SA population on an age and sex-specific basis, a proportionate approach was used to compare the percentage distribution of cancers in this population during 4 time periods from 1988-2000 (i.e. 1988-1990, 1991-1993, 1994-1996, and 1997-2000). Analyses were completed separately in males and females and in two age groups (0-64 years and 65+ years). Results: In younger men (0-64), prostate cancer is rising rapidly, with an increase from 5.5% of all cancer in the first time period to 24.3 % in the last time period. Other cancers, which are proportionately increasing in younger men, are lymphomas, leukemias and cancers of the nervous system and esophagus (especially in the last two time periods). In the older men (65+), prostate cancer has remained relatively steady over the 4 time periods even though it is the most common cancer. Other relevant observations in this group include an increase in proportion of cancers of the urinary system, liver and intrahepatic bile duct and also a steady increase in leukemias and lymphomas. In younger aged women, the breast cancer percentage rose dramatically from 28.6% in the first time period to 45.9% in the last time period. Other cancers on the rise in young SA women are lymphomas, leukemias and cancers of the urinary system, corpus and uterus, and esophagus. In older SA women cancer of the esophagus and stomach are proportionately increasing, while the proportions of other cancers are remaining steady or decreasing during the 4 time periods. Conclusion: These results need to be interpreted in light of changes in lifestyle of the SA population in the U.S. More reliable results derived from incidence rates need to be calculated to obtain an accurate picture of trends in cancer in the SA population.

Isolation and characterization of organisms capable of degrading pesticide alternatives to methyl bromide
Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Archana Mohan, Joy Mombourquette, Alice Wright
California State University Fresno, Department of Biology

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANISMS CAPABLE OF DEGRADING PESTICIDE ALTERNATIVES TO METHYL BROMIDE Poster Presentation Paphavee Lertsethtakarn (undergraduate) Archana Mohan Joy Mombourquette Alice Wright California State University Fresno, Department of Biology, 2555 E. San Ramon Ave, MS SB 73 Fresno, CA 93740 (559) 278- 7692 Major concerns about the depletion of ozone layer has prompted the phasing out of methyl bromide, a toxic pre-plant soil fumigant, widely used in California strawberry farms. Current efforts are focused on developing and implementing environmentally sound pesticide alternatives to methyl bromide. This research involves the isolation and characterization of microbes capable of degrading these alternatives, specifically methyl iodide, 1-3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin. Enrichment culture techniques at ambient conditions were used to isolate microorganisms that degrade each of these pesticides. Identification of these organisms was based on traditional staining techniques, biochemical analysis and by sequencing portions of DNA that encode the small ribosomal subunit and comparing the sequences to a ribosomal database. The rate of pesticide degradation will be analyzed using gas chromatography. Preliminary assessments have revealed the existence of 35 to 40 organisms capable of utilizing one of the pesticide alternatives as a sole carbon source. Biochemical tests and DNA sequences have identified species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas. Even though the species isolated are limited to organisms that grow at ambient conditions, this study provides further insight into the relationship between microorganisms and pesticide degradation.

Disease and Danger in Greek Poleis: How the Ancient Greeks Interpreted Physical and Abstract Diseases
Xay Lee
California State University, Fresno

A study into the phenomenon of "disease" within Greek poleis (city-states) can offer insights to how the Ancient Greeks interpreted disease and from where they believed it originated. Moreover, a polis that suffers from physical diseases can also easily suffer from abstract diseases that are caused by "stasis" or political and civil strife. A type of physical disease is the plague that caused the Greeks in Athens in 430 B.C. to be attacked by "violent heats in the head, and redness and inflammation in the eyes" (Thucydides, 2.49.2). The objective of this study is to examine how the Greeks distinguished between physical and abstract diseases and how they rid themselves of these pollutants from Greek society. Since the portrayal of human action in Greek poleis is described by authors such as Solon, Theognis, Aeschylus, and Plato, my study must rely on Greek literature that depicts medical and political imagery to illustrate the realities that can literally "plague" a people and society. Because much of Greek literature alludes to historical events, it is also necessary to examine works from historians such as Herodotus and Thucydides. My study will show that in both Greek literature and Greek history, the purity of a polis, be it purity from physical or abstract diseases, will depend upon the kind of rulers in power as well as the actions of a people. While physical diseases include plagues that strike a people as well as crops and abstract "diseases" include politicians ruthlessly vying for power, what is most interesting is the correlation between these two diseases. In other words, it can be inferred that in Greek society, physical diseases cause abstract ones while abstract diseases lead to the overall sickness of a polis.

Metabolic Syndrome is Highly Prevalent in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
Nini Thomas, Dr. Prakash Deedwania
California State University Fresno, Veterans Affairs Central California Health Care System

Metabolic Syndrome is Highly Prevalent in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Dr. Prakash Deedwania Nini Thomas Veterans Affairs Central California Center for Health and Human Services, Fresno California State University, Fresno Background: The metabolic syndrome consists of a clustering of metabolic abnormalities -- insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and obesity. Recent Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines have emphasized the significance of metabolic syndrome (MS) as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the prevalence of MS in CAD patients is not known. Accordingly, the primary objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of MS in unselected consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of CAD. Method: A random group of 668 patients with established diagnosis of CAD was selected from computer records of VACCHCS, Fresno. Patients’ age, pulse, blood pressure, height, weight, body mass index, FBS and total, LDL and HDL cholesterols were recorded. History of treatment for diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia was also recorded. Diagnosis of MS was based on ATP III guidelines. Statistical analyses were done using the Chi-Square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Results: The study population consisted of 668 men with CAD with a mean age of 69 years. Of these, 507 were found to have MS, giving a prevalence of 75% (C.I. 72 --78%, p value <.001). Of the MS patients, 77% were found to have dyslipidemia and hypertension respectively (p value <.0001 for both). Conclusion: These data suggest that MS is highly prevalent among patients with CAD. Future prospective studies should evaluate the risk of CAD in patients with MS.

Host Associations of Bradyrhizobium from Paired Plants of Lupinus bicolor and Lotus purshianus
Leigh Schmidt, Ethelynda Harding
Department of Biology California State University, Fresno

The aim of this study was to examine the degree of host specificity in situ by comparing Bradyrhizobium infecting native plants of Lotus and Lupinus. Genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of rDNA were used to characterize the bacteria. Bacteria had previously been isolated from paired adjacent plants of Lupinus bicolor and Lotus purshianus and stored frozen at -70 C. DNA from 30 pairs was extracted and used in repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS) RFLP, and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). From these methods individual genomic fingerprints and banding patterns were generated. The isolates were classified by the presence/absence of bands using cluster analysis (between groups linkage using squared Euclidean distance), and chi-squared analysis was used to determine if different fingerprint groups preferentially associated with either of the two host genera. Under IGS-RFLP, thirty-seven isolates had an identical banding pattern. Results using ARDRA were similar to those obtained with IGS-RFLP. Each isolate produced a unique banding pattern under REP-PCR; results were not consistent with those obtained from IGS RFLP and/or ARDRA. In a combined analysis of IGS-RFLP and ARDRA patterns, thirty-eight isolates were grouped together with 99% similarity. The remaining isolates showed varying degrees of heterogeneity, with differences up to 24%. The homogeneous group included a higher than expected number of isolates from Lupinus (P< 0.05), suggesting a possibility of host preference. Additionally, ten of the paired strains fell together into the homogeneous group, with only two pairs in the heterogeneous group, indicating the possibility that geographically close plants are infected by the same bacterial clone (P< 0.01). We are currently sequencing rDNA for further characterization of the bacteria. These results suggest the possibility of host preference and effective nodulation of adjacent plants, even of differing genera, due to an endemic population of a particular Bradyrhizobium strain.

Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism Genotype Is Associated With Behavioral Disinhibition and Negative Affect in Children of Alcoholics
G.R.Twitchell, G.L. Hanna, E.H. Cook, H.E. Fitzgerald, R.A. Zucker
VA Central California Healthcare System, Michigan State University, University of Michigan, University of Chicago

Background : Serotonergic (5-HT) dysfunction has been implicated in the etiology of both behavioral disinhibition (BD) and negative affect (NA). This work extends our previous finding of relationships between whole blood 5-HT and both BD and NA in pubescent, but not prepubescent, children of alcoholics and continues examination of a hypothesized role of 5-HT dysfunction in alcoholism risk. The long and short (L and S) variants of the 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are responsible for differing transcriptional efficiencies in 5-HT uptake. Although associations have been found between the SS 5-HTTLPR genotype and severe alcoholism and neuroticism, recent reports describe relationships between the LL genotype and both low level of response to alcohol and alcoholism diagnosis and a predominance of the LL genotype in early-onset alcoholics. Methods: This report is from an ongoing prospective study of the development of risk for alcoholism and other problematic outcomes in a sample of families classified by father’s alcoholism subtype. This study examines relationships between 5-HTTLPR genotype and both child BD (Child Behavior Checklist Aggressive Behavior) and NA (Child Behavior Checklist Anxious/Depressed) in offspring from 47 families. Results: Results showed significantly higher levels of BD and NA in the 16 children with the LL genotype than the 46 SS or SL children. Conclusions: Behaviors of undercontrol, which occur at increased rates in children of alcoholics, may be genetically influenced through the regulation of the 5-HT transporter. Due to the small sample size and the preliminary nature of our findings, replication is necessary.

Object Relations in the Dynamics of Spiritual and Psychological Well-Being
Leda L. Smith, M.A.
Alliant International University, California School of Prof. Psych., Fresno

Object relations theory is the first psychoanalytic perspective to recognize relationships as primary motivation for human development. This has taken Freud’s psychoanalysis down a recently conceived and underdeveloped path toward integration with the concept of human spirituality. That psychoanalytic theory and spirituality would one day converge seems contradictory to the basic assumptions of both paradigms. Freud thought that science would eventually dissolve the pathological need for belief in God, and replace religion with a rational morality. Instead, the evolution of psychoanalysis has shifted from a view of libidinal-driven energy, which spurs human growth, to more of a relational-driven energy. This has opened new doors for the integration of spiritual principles, especially Christianity, which is at its core relational. Now Christian psychology, though once rejecting of Freud’s atheism, can embrace the more modern advancement of his theory. Object relations theory proposes that early childhood relationships affect other relationships throughout life -- relationships with others and with God. The first hypothesis of this study attempts to add further validity to prior research, which concludes that quality of relationship with others is highly correlated to quality of relationship with God. It is also hypothesized that the quality of relationship with others, as well as quality of relationship with God, has a significant influence on the perceived feeling of psychological well-being. Self-report inventories were administered to college students at a private university to measure quality of relationship with others (Bell Object Relations Inventory), quality of relationship with God (Spiritual Assessment Inventory), and psychological well being (Schwarz Outcome Scale -- 10). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that relationship with God and relationships with others are highly correlated. It was also found that the influence of relationships on psychological well-being is significant, with some forms of relationship being more influential than others.

Characterization and Transposon Mutagenesis of Propargyl Bromide Degraders
Holly Ramage, Alice Wright
California State University, Fresno

The primary pesticide used by farmers since the 1960s is a soil fumigant called methyl bromide. It is a very effective fumigant, however, there are concerns about the effects of methyl bromide on the ozone layer. As a result, methyl bromide is being phased out and alternative pesticides are being analyzed. This research will involve the isolation and characterize of organisms able to use an alternative pesticide, propargyl bromide, as a sole carbon source. Using enrichment culture techniques at ambient conditions we have isolated 10 organisms that degrade propargyl bromide from California soils with a history of fumigation with this pesticide. We are identifying these organisms using traditional biochemical analysis and by determining the DNA sequence of the small ribosomal subunit and comparing these sequences to a database of sequences from known organisms. Organisms that have lost the ability to degrade propargyl bromide are generated by transposon mutagenesis. All strains isolated are able to grow using propargyl bromide as a sole carbon source. Biochemical analyses have been inconclusive, however some strains have been tentatively identified, and include many strains of Pseudomonas. DNA sequences compared to the ribosomal database have identified some organisms as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. We have screened approximately 200 colonies that have been mutated, and our currently determining those that are no longer able to degrade propargyl bromide. Our research has shown that there are a wide variety of organisms able to degrade propargyl bromide. However, the scope of this research is limited in that all species isolated must be able to grow at ambient temperatures. Further studies include examining the rate of degradation using gas chromatography.

Identification and Characterization of Rhizobium Infecting California Native Clover
Jennifer Turner, Ethelynda Harding
California State University, Fresno

Rhizobium forms nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, where the bacteria fix nitrogen into a form the plants can use. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolution of such symbiotic association we have been investigating the populations of Rhizobium associated with native clovers in central California. Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated that a single type of Rhizobium infects four species of annual clover in the foothills, while two genetically distinct types, showing host specificity, infect perennial clover species in high mountain meadows. The current study is designed to determine the genetic relatedness of the three groups of Rhizobium and to develop rapid and cost-effect means of characterizing Rhizobium populations to enable large scale population studies of additional clover species, as well as the determination of the extent to which individual plants are infected by multiple types of Rhizobium. Repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) will be employed to characterize a large number of isolates previously obtained from perennial clovers in the mountain meadows and annual clovers of the Sierra Nevada foothills. Isolates will be classified according to their genetic profiles and the results compared with previous data obtained using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Sequencing of rDNA of representative isolates will be used to determine the phylogenetic relationships among the Rhizobium types. Current results have yet to differentiate among the three Rhizobium groups. Future results will help us understand the evolutionary processes shaping the legume-Rhizobium mutualism, including coevolution between the plants and bacteria and form the basis for future studies of the extent of "cheating," or ineffective nodulation, occurring in native systems.

Microbial Gene Regulation of 2,4-D Degradation
Jovita M. Diaz, Alice D. Wright
California State University, Fresno

This investigates promoter regions of genes tfdA, tfdB, and tfdC. These genes code for enzymes that catalyze initial steps in the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). 2,4-D is a synthetic compound used extensively over the past five decades as an herbicide. It is subject to rapid biological degradation by soil bacteria found naturally in the environment. Studies have shown bacteria capable of degrading 2,4-D have been able to assemble the pathway by obtaining genes from different sources and coordinately regulating them -- a process not completely understood. Promoter regions of the genes were cloned into a plasmid with a promoterless lacZ gene. b-galactosidase was used to quantitate promoter function. The plasmid was mobilized into different bacterial strains by patch mating to determine the extent of promoter --lacZ fusions function in those bacteria. Promoters were cloned from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 and Burkholderia sp. RASC, two 2,4-D degraders that contain significant differences in the DNA sequences of the enzymes and have different gene organization in the pathway. We cloned a SalI / BamHI restriction endonuclease fragment derived from a region of the chromosome of strain RASC that codes for the first enzyme of the 2,4-D pathway. We are also cloned EcoRI / BamHI and HindIII / BamHI restriction endonuclease fragments from strain JMP134. These represent the putative promoter regions of tfdA and tfdB, respectively. The aim of this project is to study how catabolic pathways evolve, specifically the evolution of regulatory elements. Using 2,4-D metabolism as a model system we are determining promoter function in a collection of 2,4-D degrading organisms that have been characterized with respect to the genes encoding the enzymes of the pathway. Expression of specific promoters varies as much as twenty fold depending on the source of promoter and the strain that expression is tested in. The significant variation in promoter function that we observe suggests that there are multiple evolutionary origins for these promoters. These studies may further our understanding of the assembly of pathways in response to other xenobiotic compounds.


Air quality in California is a matter of increasing concern.The State Air Resources Board is completing an inventory of atmospheric constituents that may contribute to air quality problems. Among those constituents is ammonia (NH3) that has been shown to form secondary particulates (PM2.5) when combined with oxides of N and S from combustion. Ammonia, the dominant gaseous base in the atmosphere and a principal neutralizing agent, remains one of the most poorly characterized atmospheric trace compounds. Among the factors influencing ammonia emissions are the capacity of soils, organic matter, and vegetation to act as both sources and sinks for atmospheric ammonia, and the variability in nitrogen fertilizer management practices.The objective of the current study, funded by the California Air Resources Board, was to characterize NH3 emissions in the Central Valley of California from crops and natural vegetation through their entire seasons. The study will continue through 2004. An active sampling technique was used with denuders and anemometers co-located at four heights.NH3 concentrations were measured at 0.5m, 1.0m, 2.0m, 4.0m and 10.0m along with wind speed and wind direction. A barley crop grown to be green chopped for dairy forage was sampled in January 2002.The NH3 values were relatively low due to high humidity and low temperatures.A low elevation (300m), annual grass range was sampled on dates that were similar to the barley/silage corn field.The NH3 flux profiles were considerably lower than those in the barley measured at about the same time.Two preliminary conclusions that are beginning to emerge are that there is a clear diurnal difference in NH3 emmissions with more being found in the day than at night and a vertical flux gradient occuring with higher concentrations at the higher sampling heights and lower concentrations at the lower sampling heights.

Addition of Surfactants to Improve Irrigation Efficiency in Commercial Turf Systems
Genett Carstensen, Dave Goorahoo

The projected increase of 15 million in California’s population by the year 2020 will result in further competition among various agricultural sectors for the state’s limited water supply. In an effort to deal with this competition, the Turfgrass industry has been adopting management practices in order to enhance water use efficiency and thereby ensure its sustainability. The goal of this research was to evaluate the systematic application of surfactants as a management strategy for commercial turf systems such as golf courses. The impacts of three non-ionic surfactant formulations, applied at two rates, on steady rate infiltration, turf quality, soil salinity and water storage in the root zone were investigated. Treatments comprised of a control (no surfactant), two commercially available surfactants (Infiltrx® and Dispatch®) and an experimental formulation (‘1858®). Infiltration and turf quality measurements were taken before, during and four months after surfactant application. Surfactants significantly affected infiltration rates, with Dispatch® resulting in the highest infiltration at the low application rates and both Dispatch® and the ‘1858’® formulation significantly increasing infiltration at the high rates. Generally, there were improvements in color, growth vigor and overall quality of the turf as result of surfactant addition. There were no observable differences in the soil electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values obtained for either the treated or non-treated plots, thereby suggesting that there were no adverse soil salinity effects of the surfactant additions. For the low application rates, Dispatch® indicated the potential for maximum water use efficiency. For the high application rates, water loss from the root zone for the surfactant treated plots were either greater than or equal to that from the control plots. It is suggested that surfactant formulation 1858® applied once a month at a rate of 250mls per 100m2 can be used on plots that are of relatively high quality to ensure maximum water use efficiency. For plots of relatively poor turf quality and reduced infiltration rates, at least one application of Dispatch® or 1858®, and possibly up to a maximum of three consecutive monthly applications, at the rates used in the current study can be used to increase infiltration rates. More than three rounds of applications in consecutive months may result in water percolating pass the turfgrass root zone.

Interfering Effects of Music on Retention
Adam B. Hess, Melissa J. Boyd, Keo Mo, and Karl Oswald
California State University, Fresno

Previous research suggests that unattended music during study negatively affects short-term memory recall, provided the music contains lyrics (e.g., Salame & Baddley, 1989). However, the effects of studying with various types of music on long-term retention remain unclear. Two experiments investigated interfering effects of familiar and unfamiliar music on free recall. Experiment 1 manipulated familiarity of the song played during encoding within-subjects: words were studied in silence, in the presence of familiar music (i.e., "The Lion Sleeps Tonight"), or in the presence of unfamiliar music. Participants (n=72) then free-recalled the words following a short retention interval. Experiment 2 (n=55) followed the same procedure, manipulating the familiarity of song version: familiar and unfamiliar versions of the same song (i.e., "Every Breath You Take). Results of experiment 1 indicated no recall differences between silence and familiar music. However, recall in the unfamiliar-music encoding condition was significantly lower than either the silence or familiar-music conditions. Results of experiment 2 showed equal recall across all conditions. Together, these findings suggest that studying with music is only detrimental when the music is unfamiliar. This seems to be the case only when the song itself is unfamiliar rather than an unfamiliar version of a familiar song. Implications on the unattended speech effect and applications to the learning environment are discussed.

B. R. Glosier, L. M. Donnelly, V. M. Gomes, E. A. Ogundiwin, G. Sidhu & J. P. Prince
CSU, Fresno, Biology Department

Phytophthora is a fungus that causes root rot and foliar blight in pepper. Sources of resistance have been reported in some pepper accessions. Reports indicate resistance to this fungus is controlled by one to several genes. The genetics of resistance are currently being studied to facilitate the development of resistant commercial varieties. Experiments are ongoing to elucidate the inheritance of resistance and to detect the locations of the resistance genes in the genome of pepper as well as the virulence genes in the genome of Phytophthora capsici. Eight P. capsici isolates have been collected from different sources and used for the screening of 11 pepper lines. One month-old seedlings were inoculated with Phytophthora zoospores solution and two months later were scored for disease severity (0 = resistance, 5 = susceptible). Crosses between resistant and susceptible parents were performed to generate mapping populations. Fifteen primer pairs developed from resistance gene analogs (RGAs) are being used to screen pepper germplasm to generate linkage maps and identify putative RGAs. Sequences corresponding to elicitin proteins of P. capsici are being identified utilizing the P. infestans Genome Database to generate primers to screen P. capsici isolates. Six of 11 pepper lines showed strong susceptibility to each of the P. capsici isolates, while five of the lines showed resistance. One of the RGA primers tested showed polymorphism between the parents and was observed to segregate in the mapping population. Efforts are ongoing to link these RGA-based polymorphisms with resistance genes (QTL’s). Sequences for elicitin proteins of P. infestans have been found and sequence alignments are being performed to design primers to amplify putative virulence genes in P. capsici. With the construction of pepper linkage maps, the location of resistance genes can be determined and will enhance marker-assisted breeding of pepper varieties resistant to root rot.

A Preliminary Study of Relationship Between E-Coli, Total Suspended Solids and Ammonium in Dairy Lagoon Effluent
Genett Carstensen, Dave Goorahoo
Center for Irrigation Technology, California State University, Fresno

California is the number one dairy state, producing 20% of the nations milk supply. California’s 2,150 dairy families house 1.55 million milk cows. Approximately one out of every six dairy cows in the U.S. lives in California. While the growth of this industry results in significant economic returns for the region, there is the issue of effective manure management. In dairy operations, manure is commonly handled as an effluent stream of liquid or slurry manure by means of hydraulic flushing - lagoon storage - irrigation system. In the process of flushing to the fields a series of cross contaminations have been known to occur that effect human health and water supply. Other major problems associated with the manure management are high solids and nutrient contents of the effluent stream, along with the bacterial contamination. While bacteria helps breakdown solids in the effluent stream, it can also be a major concern to dairymen in the form of sick cows and lost production. For this study the effluent streams from two dairies were examined at several different locations around the dairy. These dairies differed in both sizes and management practices. For example, on the smaller dairy (approximately 500 head herd size) the effluent was periodically aerated prior to pumping to fields. On the larger dairy (1500 head herd size), there was no aeration and the effluent was generally stored for longer periods in multi-stage lagoons. Samples were collected and were tested to determine the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Ammonium (NH4) concentration and E-coli present. The major objective was to investigate if there is any correlation between E-coli levels and the relatively easily measurable parameters such as TSS, pH, EC and NH4. There was no observable trend between E-coli and either Total Suspended Solids and NH4. However, the interaction of Total Suspended Solids and Ammonium showed a significantly positive (p=0.001) effect on e-coli population. On the small dairy, E-Coli counts decreased as the pH dropped from around 8.0 to 6.5 in flush lines and in both the primary and secondary lagoons. Furthermore, Total Suspended Solids, Ammonium and Ecoli showed a statistical difference between dairies. This indicates that dairy management practices may be the key to a less polluting dairy. Further work will focus on identification of specific management practices and their effect the various parameters measured in this study.

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